The Portuguese were the first European power that came in contact with the Indian society especially the coastal society at the turn of the sixteenth century. They had interacted with the Indians at various levels like the cultivators, merchants, nobles and kings. This has been continuing effectively till I961 when the Portuguese possessions in India were integrated into the Indian Republic. The imprints of the Portuguese presence in India for over 500 years are visible in various aspects of the Indian life. Taking into account the long duration of the Portuguese contact with India, a number of scholars from various parts of the world presented the findings of their research at an international seminar organised jointly by the Pondicherry University and the St. Thomas College, Palai, Kerala in 1999. The papers deal with a variety of subjects like local resistance put up by Kunhali Marakkar, the different facets of the history of the St.Thomas Christians of Malabar, European perception aboutm the St. Thomas Christians, Indo-Portuguese art and architecture, Portuguese orientalism, Portuguese impact on Hindi, Malayalam, and Oriya languages, the Muslims on the Malabar coast, the social welfare and educational activities of the Portuguese, religious policy of the Portuguese in Goa, Portuguese state and medicine, the personality of Dom Alexis de Menezes, societal changes in Tamil country and the impact of the provincial councils of Goa on the Malabar society, Indian society as reﬂected in German reports and details of some of the eminent Jesuits on the Pearl Fishery coast. These papers are collected and published in the order they were presented at the Seminar. No paper has been left out since attempts were made to incorporate contributions of all the participants.